Publications

Below please find a list of my publications, together with an abstract for each. You can also check out my Google Scholar profile.

Author order is by contribution, unless indicated by *

2020

Abstract: We study the problem of learning from multiple untrusted data sources, a scenario of increasing practical relevance given the recent emergence of crowdsourcing and collaborative learning paradigms. Specifically, we analyze the situation in which a learning system obtains datasets from multiple sources, some of which might be biased or even adversarially perturbed. It is known that in the single-source case, an adversary with the power to corrupt a fixed fraction of the training data can prevent PAC-learnability, that is, even in the limit of infinitely much training data, no learning system can approach the optimal test error. In this work we show that, surprisingly, the same is not true in the multi-source setting, where the adversary can arbitrarily corrupt a fixed fraction of the data sources. Our main results are a generalization bound that provides finite-sample guarantees for this learning setting, as well as corresponding lower bounds. Besides establishing PAC-learnability our results also show that in a cooperative learning setting sharing data with other parties has provable benefits, even if some participants are malicious.


2019

Abstract: Modern machine learning methods often require more data for training than a single expert can provide. Therefore, it has become a standard procedure to collect data from external sources, e.g. via crowdsourcing. Unfortunately, the quality of these sources is not always guaranteed. As additional complications, the data might be stored in a distributed way, or might even have to remain private. In this work, we address the question of how to learn robustly in such scenarios. Studying the problem through the lens of statistical learning theory, we derive a procedure that allows for learning from all available sources, yet automatically suppresses irrelevant or corrupted data. We show by extensive experiments that our method provides significant improvements over alternative approaches from robust statistics and distributed optimization.


2018

Abstract: Distributed training of massive machine learning models, in particular deep neural networks, via Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) is becoming commonplace. Several families of communication-reduction methods, such as quantization, large-batch methods, and gradient sparsification, have been proposed. To date, gradient sparsification methods – where each node sorts gradients by magnitude, and only communicates a subset of the components, accumulating the rest locally – are known to yield some of the largest practical gains. Such methods can reduce the amount of communication per step by up to three orders of magnitude, while preserving model accuracy. Yet, this family of methods currently has no theoretical justification. This is the question we address in this paper. We prove that, under analytic assumptions, sparsifying gradients by magnitude with local error correction provides convergence guarantees, for both convex and non-convex smooth objectives, for data-parallel SGD. The main insight is that sparsification methods implicitly maintain bounds on the maximum impact of stale updates, thanks to selection by magnitude. Our analysis and empirical validation also reveal that these methods do require analytical conditions to converge well, justifying existing heuristics.

Abstract: Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) is a fundamental algorithm in machine learning, representing the optimization backbone for training several classic models, from regression to neural networks. Given the recent practical focus on distributed machine learning, significant work has been dedicated to the convergence properties of this algorithm under the inconsistent and noisy updates arising from execution in a distributed environment. However, surprisingly, the convergence properties of this classic algorithm in the standard shared-memory model are still not well-understood.
In this work, we address this gap, and provide new convergence bounds for lock-free concurrent stochastic gradient descent, executing in the classic asynchronous shared memory model, against a strong adaptive adversary. Our results give improved upper and lower bounds on the “price of asynchrony” when executing the fundamental SGD algorithm in a concurrent setting. They show that this classic optimization tool can converge faster and with a wider range of parameters than previously known under asynchronous iterations. At the same time, we exhibit a fundamental trade-off between the maximum delay in the system and the rate at which SGD can converge, which governs the set of parameters under which this algorithm can still work efficiently.